Link 16-Lights in the dark from the past and from the present

www.tightrope.it/nicolaus/index.htm 

 

If you have a Physical, Chemical, Biological, ''light in the dark'' to publish here please send it to  me. Sepiomelanin chemistry start : L.Panizzi,R.A.Nicolaus, Gazz.Chim.Ital., 82, 435-460, 1952  .

1) ....melanin a bioelectronic mechanism in brain function....M.E.Lacy, Physiol.Chem.Phys.,13,      319,(1981).

2) .....melanin pigmentation in the skin has a protective value against the harmful effects  of ultraviolet UV radiation....W.C.Quevedo,T.B.Fitzpatrick,M.A.Pathak, K.Jimbow '' Light and skin color '' in ''Sunlight and Man '', T.B.Fitzpatrick, M.A.Pathak, I.C.Herber, M.Seiji, A.Kukota, eds. pag.165-194, University of Tokyo Press,Tokyo (1974).

3)             ……. Chemistry of sepiomelanin was undertaken.Melanin from sepia officinalis  is present in the ink sac as the Mg and Ca salt….. M.Piattelli, R.A.Nicolaus, Tetrahedron, 15, 66-75, 1961; M.Piattelli, E.Fattorusso, S.Magno, R.A.Nicolaus, Tetrahedron, 18,941-949, 1962 ; 19, 2061-2072, 1963 ;  R.A.Nicolaus, M.Piattelli, E.Fattorusso,  Tetrahedron, 20, 1163-1172, 1964.

4)            .....the ink secretion of Octopus contains compounds capable of paralyzing the olfactory sense of its enemies....G.E.MacGinitie, N.MacGinitie, ''Natural History of Marine Animals'' MacGraw Hill,New York (1968).

5)  .....pigmentary disorders are well known as in albinism, vitiligo, mongolian spot, melanoma .... P.A.Riley in '' The Physiology and Pathophysiology of the skin '' pag.1149-1167,A.Jarret ed.,AP New York  (1974).

6) .....melanins increase the optical efficiency of the eye, are responsible for production of color patterns, usually of adaptive significance, in the hair and or the superficial epidermis.....G.Prota ''Melanins and Melanogenesis'' pag.1, AP San Diego (1992).

7)   ......melanins are able to bind a number of foreign substances ans to keep potentionally harmful   substances which are released after in low,non toxic form.....N.G.Lindquist, Acta Radiol.,325,1-92, (1973) ; Uppsala J. Med. Sci., 91,238-288 (1986) ; Pigment Cell Research, 1, 133, (1987).
 
8)....melanins as a matrix for chemical evolution .....M.S.Blois in the ''Origins of Prebiological Systems'' pag 19.    
S.W.Fox ed. AP,New York (1965).

9) ...........melanin acts as a coloured amorphous semiconductor ,the colour depending to the amplitude of the prohibited Fermi's band......B.J.R.Nicolaus, R.A.Nicolaus, Atti Accademia Pontaniana, Vol.XLV, 365, (1997) ; Rend.Acc.Sci.Fis.Mat.,Vol. LXIV, 325, (1998) ; www.tightrope.it/nicolaus/index.htm

10) .....neuromelanin as serving a biocybernetic function.Depletion causes the substantia nigra to revert from its neuroendocrine role to its original motor role .....F.M.Forrest, Adv.Biochem.Psychopharmacol., 9, 255, (1974).

11) .......degeneration of substantia nigra  is associated with Parkinson's disease ...... E.Hirsch, A.N.Graybiel, Y.A.Agid, Nature, 334, 345, (1988).

12)  ...........The binding of drugs aside neuromelanin suggest certain forms of chemically induced parkinsonism .....R.M.J.Ings, Drug,Metabol., Rev., 15, 1183, (1994)

13)  ........melanins from tetrahydroisoquinolines found in the brain of post mortem of Parkinson's patients are similar in dopamelanin regarding NADH oxidizing properties , oxy-radical scavenging activity, and ability to form soluble mixed polymers with melanins from opioid peptides .... L.Mosca, C.Blarzino, R.Coccia, C.Foppoli, M.A.Rosei, Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 24, 161, (1997).

14) .........antimitotic and antibiotic activity is showed by certain allomelanin of bacteria and fungi.......S.P.Ljach et al., Akad., Nauk SSSR, Institut Mikrobiologii, Izd., Nsuka Mosckva, 1-86, (1972).

15) ......Melanin was discussed as a dark screen , lying beneath certain physical light-reflecting structures whose purely schemochromic colours it emphasizes merely by absorption of the longer, more deeply penetrating rays ......D.L.Fox, ''Animal Biochromes'' pag.222, Cambridge University Press, (1953).

16) ........chordate melanins have a mainly protective function, e.g, in shielding underlying tissue from shortwave irradiation , in heat control, adaptive coloration. The significance in plants and the more primitive animals is still obscure .........   R.H.Thomson in Comparative Biochemistry pag 727, N.Florkin, H.S.Mason eds., Vol.III, Part  A, AP (1962).

17)   ......studies on the opticalspecificity of tyrosinases from different sources reveal the preference for D-isomer of tyrosine....... Y.M.Chen, W.Chavin, Experientia, 23, 997, (1967).

18).........melanin forms 18-72% of the melanosomes........  J.Duchon, J.Borovansky, P.Hach, Pigment Cell, 1, 165, Karger,Basel, (1973).

19) .......melatonin administered to the fish induces the change from day to night colouration ........A.B.Lerner, J.D.Case, Y.Toka Hashi, T.H.Lee, W.Mori, J.Am.Chem.Soc., 80, 2587, (1958).
 
20)   ......amorphous melanin is capable of absorbing ultrasound in the I-MHz range and converting this energy into a form which kills the tumor cells....J.Mc Ginness, P.M.Corry, E.Armour, Pigment Cell, Vol.3, P.Riley ed. ,Karger Basel (1976). ; U.Mizutani, T.B.Massalski, J.Mc Ginness, P.M.Corry, Nature, 259, 505, (1976).

21) ......melanin exhibits the unusual characteristics of an amorphous semiconductor treshold switch......J Mc Ginness, P.Corry, P.Proctor, Science, 183, 853, (1974). www.organicsemiconductors.com   

22) ......all black materials are electroactive ......B.J.R.Nicolaus, R.A.Nicolaus, Atti della Accademia Pontaniana, Vol.XLV, 365, (1997); Rend.Acc:Sci.Fis.Mat., Vol.LXIV, 325, (1998) ; www.tightrope.it/nicolaus/index.htm    Link 19

23) ........explosive vaporization during pulsed laser irradiation of melanosome........S.L.Jacques, D.J.Mc Auliffe, Photochemistry and Photobiology,53,769, (1991).

24) .......melanin is found to be not volatile in mass spectrometry....... www.tightrope/nicolaus/index.htm

25) .......melanins natural or prepared by synthesis are amorphous semicoductors.......A.Pullman,B.Pullman, BBA,54,384,(1961); T.Strzelecka, Physiol. Chem.Phys. 14, 219-233, (1982)

26) ....It is shown further that the superconducting state of these polymers should be distinguished by certain unique chemical properties which could have considerable biological significance..... W.A.Little, Physical Review. 134, A1417, (1964).

27) .....electrically conducting polymers could provide a noninvasive means to control the shape and function of adherent cells... J.Y.Wong, R.Langler, D.E.Ingber, Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA, 91,3201, (1994)

28) .....The influence of UV radiation on collagen from rat tail in the presence of melanin was investigated .......A.Sionkowska, J.Photochem.Photobiol., 124, 91, (1999)

29) .....Effects of L-Cysteine on the oxidation chemistry of Dopamine.....F.Zhang, G.Dryhurst, J.Med:Chem. 37, 1084, (1994).

30) ........the doping effect on melanins is not known.........DHI-black, Adrenalin-black, Catechol-black are radical-polarone of hydrate polyquinones ......the counterion of melanin is not known........the chemistry of interstellar black matter is similar to the terrestrial black matter chemistry....... www.tightrope.it/nicolaus/index.htm

31) ......dopachrome which is transformed by Sepia dopachrome-rearranging enzyme to DHI .......A.Palumbo, G.Misuraca, M.d'Ischia, G.De Martino, G.Prota, Biochem.J. 299, 839, (1994) ; A.Palumbo, A.Di Cosmo, I.Gesualdo, V.J.Hearing Biochem J., 323, 749, (1997)

32) ......many dopachrome units are present in sepiomelanin......M. Piattelli, E.Fattorusso, S.Magno, R.A.Nicolaus, Tetrahedron, 19, 2061-2072, (1963)

33) .........the radical polarone system of melanin BCM ( Black Cell Matter ),  and BSM  (  Black Synthetic Matter)........the acetylene-black system in melanins ......... www.tightrope.it/nicolaus/index.htm May, 2001

34) ...... no melanins (BCM) derived from tyrosine are polydolequinones...... www.tightrope.it/nicolaus/index.htm May, 2001

35) ...... cyclodopa precusor of eumelanin (BCM)....... A. Bolognese, R.A. Nicolaus, Atti Accademia Pontaniana Vol. L, 2001. Pontaniana.unina.it accponta@tin.it 

36) ...... BCM ( Black Cell Matter )  and BSM ( Black Synthetic Matter )  have one oxygen more than their precursors..... www.tightrope.it/nicolaus/index.htm March 2003

37) ...... tyrosinase is the only enzyme of melanogenesis...... www.tightrope.it/nicolaus/index.htm March 2003

38) ...... during the extractive process melanins (BCM) are oxidized by H2O2 contained in melanosomes or formed from atmospheric O2 www.tightrope.it/nicolaus/index.htm March 2003

39) ...... the red solution is called dopachrome. The solution is a mixture of quinones and phenols. Any substance or material which decolorizes the red solution is believed to be an enzyme...... www.tightrope.it/nicolaus/index.htm March 2003

40)………melanogenesis universal model for earth and space……… The WEB. Link 7

41) …optically active tetrameric melanin intermediates are discovered…… A.Pezzella,D.Vogna,G.Prota,Tetrahedron Asymmetry 14,1133-1140, (2003)

42) Melanin particle ( L.Zeise, B.L.Murr, M.R.Chedekek, Pigment Cell Research, 5, 132-142, 1992 ) is formed by mixture of oligomers species with molecular weight in the range of 500-1500  Da A.Napolitano,A.Pezzella,G.Prota, R.Deraglia, P.Traldi,Rapid Comm. Mass Spectrom., 10,204-208, 1996 ; 10,468-472, 1996 ; A.Pezzella, M.D’Ischia, A.Napolitano, A.Palumbo, G.Prota, Tetrahedron, 53, 8281-8286, 1997. 

43)…..The black pigment from Ustilago maydis spores has been studied. Analytical data and degradation experiments show it to be a catechol-melanin…..M.Piattelli,E.Fattorusso, R.A.Nicolaus, S.Magno, Tetrahedron, 21, 1229-1236, 1965.

 

44) Melanin  is not a  polymer. Melanin is a particle ( L.Zeise, B.L.Murr, M.R.Chedekel, 5, 132-142, 1992 )   formed by radical-polarones of polyene systems the most simple one being acetylene-black.

Melanin is not a biological garbage as commonly believed.

Melanin is one of the most  important  substance of living matter.

Some peculiar properties known until now  are:

  1. Sound and electrical conductivity    ( BCM and BSM )
  2. Storage of gas, water,  liquids ( Earth and Interstellar spaces ).

     c.   Binding of ions and organic molecules

d.   Conducting melanins ( BCM, BSM )  and  control   of adherent cells………

e. All chemical and physical data may change with form and size of the particle, preparation and purification methods,  binding effect, doping.

 

  45) ...........melanin standard method : particle description…….L.Zeisel, B.L.Murr, M.R.Chedekel , Pigment Cell Research, 5, 132-142, 1992.

 

46) ….. the effect of preparation procedures on particle morphology of sepiomelanin……Y.Liu, J, Simon, Pigment Cell Research, 16, 72-80,2003

 

47)    …….13C and 15N NMR  of sepiomelanin and sepiomelanic acid------------ B.Bhavin, N.Akmedov, A.R.Katritzky, C.Bowers, Magn.Reson.Chem., 41, 466-474, 2003

 

 

48)    …….Electrical conductivity of DOPA-melanin……M.Jastrzebska, H.Isotalo, J.Paloheims, H.Stubb,J.Biomater.Sci.Polym., 7, 577-586, 1995

 

49)……. Semiconductor properties of natural melanins…….T.Strzelecka, Physiol.Chem.Phys,14, 223-231, 1982.

 

50) ….melanogenesis in the ink gland of Sepia………A:Palumbo, Pigment Cell Research,  16, 517-522, 2003

 

51)…………the color loci of mice…………..D.C.Bennett, M.L.Lamoreux, Pigment Cell Research, 16, 333-344, 2003

 

52) ………melanins,melanocytes, melanogenesis : an illustrated history of the past half century

…………..G.Prota, Pigment Cell Research, 13, 283-293, 2000 .

 

 

Naples and Monza October 2003